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blender - 编辑Armature
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    2018-6-7 14:57:58    作者: blenderFans      进入评论页
介绍
Mode:Edit Mode
Hotkey:Tab

As with any other object, you edit your armature in Edit Mode Tab. 类似其他的对象,你需要在编辑
模式下修改你的armature.

The set of bone editing tools is quite similar to the one for mesh editing. Blender also features a more advanced “armature sketching” tool, called Etch-a-Ton. The same tool might also be used intemplating, i.e. using another armature as template for the current one…
这些相关的编辑工具类似mesh的编辑工具,Blender也提供了高级的armature的手绘高级工具,被称为
Etch-a-Ton,这工具也可以在模版中被使用,例如用另外的armature当作模版,给当前的armature来使用。

One important thing to understand about armature editing is that you edit the rest position of your armature, i.e. its “default state”. An armature in its rest position has all bones with norotation and scaled to 1.0 in their own local space.

需要你重点理解的是,当你编辑了你的armature的位置的时候,例如默认状态,那么在其他位置上的armature拥有所有
无翻转的bones,并且放大填充到它们的展示区域。

The different poses you might create afterwards are based on this rest position. So if you modify it in Edit Mode, all the poses already existing will also be modified. Thus you should in general be sure that your armature is definitive before starting to skin and pose it!
你像生成的不同的姿势,是基于其他位置的,所以你在编辑模式下编辑它,那么所有的其他姿势也会被改变,因此你需要
确信,在可是编辑之前,你非常了解你的armature.

https://docs.blender.org/manual/en/dev/rigging/armatures/bones/editing/transform.html

Transform


Transform



We will not detail here the various transformations of bones, nor things like axis locking, pivot points, and so on, as they are common to most object editing, and already described in the mesh section. The same goes for mirroring, as it is nearly the same as with mesh editing. Just keep in mind that bones’ roots and tips behave more or less like meshes’ vertices, and bones themselves act like edges in a mesh.
我们不会在这里讨论转换的细节,比如坐标轴锁定等,还有pivot点,因为这些都与绝大多数的对象是类似的,我们只需要
意识到bones的头部和尾部的控制更类似mesh的锚点,而bones自身更类似mesh.

As you know, bones can have two types of relationships: They can be parented, and in addition connected. Parented bones behave in Edit Mode exactly as if they had no relations. They can be grabbed, rotated, scaled, etc. without affecting their descendants. However, connected bones must always have parent’s tips connected to child’s roots, so by transforming a bone, you will affect all its connected parent/children/siblings.
正如你所知道的,bones可以拥有两种关系,它们可以是父子关系,同时还有相互的链接关系,而编辑的
方式与无关系的独立bones几乎是类似的,可以被转动,放大缩小等等,只是不影响相关的子bones而已,因此
有链接关系的必须让父的头部与子的根部相互链接,这样改变一处就可以影响有链接的其他处的bones了。



While with other transform tools, the “local axes” means the object’s axes, here they are the bone’s own axes (when you lock to a local axis, by pressing the relevant key twice, the constraint is applied along the selected bone’s local axis, not the armature object’s axis).
而这里的本地坐标轴意味是对象自身的坐标轴,在这里你需要单击relevant 键两次就可以锁定到一个本地
坐标轴,约束仅仅应用到被选择的bones的本地本地坐标轴,而不是整个armature对象的坐标轴。

Finally, you can edit in the Transform panel in the Properties region the positions and radius of both joints of the active selected bone, as well as its roll rotation.
最后,你可以在Transform面板里的属性编辑 位置,半径,翻转等信息。

Scale Radius 修改半径


Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Armature ? Transform ? Scale Radius
Hotkey:Alt-S

You can alter the radius that a bone has by selecting the head, body or tail of a bone, and then press Alt-S and move the mouse left or right. If the body is selected the mean radius will be scaled. And as usual, with connected bones, you scale at the same time the radius of the parent’s tip and of the children’s roots.

你可以修改一个bone半径,通过选中头部,或尾部,和主体部分,然后按alt+s 并且移动鼠标,有父子关系
的,当改动一处就可以影响其他处。

You can also alter the bone radius by selecting the tail or head of the bone you wish to alter, then navigate to Properties Editor ? Bone ? Deform ? Radius Section and entering new values for the Tail and Head number buttons.

另外你也可以先选中头部或尾部,你想修改的bone,然后去属性编辑器 - bone - deform - Radius Section 然后针对
头部或尾部设置一个新的数值。

我们最好把所有bones都放置好以后,布局好以后,再修改其的属性,否则一旦移动,就会轻易修改我们曾修改过的属性。


Scale Envelope Distance 对弯曲距离进行缩放

Mode:Edit Mode and Pose Mode
Menu:Armature ? Transform ? Scale Envelope Distance
Hotkey:Ctrl-Alt-S


You can alter the size of the Bone Envelope volume by clicking on the body of the bone you want to alter, Ctrl-Alt-S then drag your mouse left or right and the Bone Envelope volume will alter accordingly.
你可以通过单击bone的主体部分,然后ctrl+alt+S,并移动过你的鼠标向右或左,就可以完成对应的
弯曲量的修改。

你也可以去 Properties Editor ? Bone ? Deform ? Envelope ? Distance 输入一个新数值,来完成修改。

Altering the Bone Envelope volume does not alter the size of the bone just the range within which it can influence vertices of child objects.
对弯曲量的修改,你并不会修改bose的大小,也不会影响到其他子对象的锚点。

Align Bones 放置 Bones

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Armature ? Transform ? Align Bones
Hotkey:Ctrl-Alt-A

Bone Roll Bone翻转

In Edit Mode, you can control the bone roll (i.e. the rotation around the Y axis of the bone).
在编辑模式下,你可以控制bone的翻转,比如围绕y轴进行转动。

However, after editing the armature, or when using euler rotation, you may want to set the bone roll
然而,编辑了一个armature后,或是使用了euler翻转后,你也许会想设置一个bone的翻转


Set Bone Roll 设置Bone翻转

Reference

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Armature ? Bone Roll ? Set
Hotkey:Ctrl-R

This is a transform mode where you can edit the roll of all selected bones.
这种切换模式,在你想编辑的所有已经选中的bones的翻转设置的时候出现

Recalculate Bone Roll 重计算bone翻转

Reference

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Armature ? Bone Roll ? Recalculate
Hotkey:Ctrl-N
Axis Orientation 面向坐标轴
Local Tangent 本地切线

Align roll relative to the axis defined by the bone and its parent. 让所有的翻转都被bone定义的
坐标轴数据所定义

X, Z

Global Axis 全局坐标轴

Align roll to global X, Y, Z axis. 基于x,y,z轴

X, Y, Z

Active Bone 活动Bone
Follow the rotation of the active bone. 跟随活动bone的翻转而翻转
View Axis
Set the roll to align with the viewport. 跟随viewport的坐标轴来翻转
Cursor
Set the roll towards the 3D cursor. 跟随3d 光标完成翻转
Flip Axis  坐标轴翻转
Reverse the axis direction. 坐标轴的方向进行翻转
Shortest Rotation 最短翻转
Avoids rolling the bone over 90 degrees from its current value. 最小翻转,放置比当前值算大于90度。

Switch Direction 切换方向

Reference

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Armature ? Switch DirectionSpecials ? Switch Direction
Hotkey:Alt-F

This tool is not available from the Armature menu, but only from the Specials pop-up menu W. It allows you to switch the direction of the selected bones (i.e. their root will become their tip, and vice versa).
这个功能,在Armature菜单不可用,只有通过单击w键调用快显菜单来使用,它允许你改变选中的bones的
方向。(例如头部变尾部)

Switching the direction of a bone will generally break the chain(s) it belongs to. However, if you switch a whole (part of a) chain, the switched bones will still be parented/connected, but in “reversed order”. 
改变了一个bone的方向以后,则会打断它所属的bone链,然而,如果你想改变一个链的部分,该别转换的bone将仍然
保持在链条中的连接性。

Editing Bones

Add Menu

Reference

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Add
Hotkey:Shift-A

In the 3D View, Shift-A to add a new bone to your armature. 
在3d视图下,shift-A就可以添加一个新的bone到你的armature.

这个bone具备:

  • Of one Blender Unit of length.一个blender定义的单元长度
  • Oriented towards the global Z axis. 面向z轴
  • With its root placed at the 3D cursor position.头部放在3d光标的位置
  • With no relationship with any other bone of the armature.独立的,没任何关系跟其他的bone.

Extrude

Reference

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Armature ? Extrude
Hotkey:EShift-E

When you press E, for each selected tip (either explicitly or implicitly), a new bone is created. This bone will be the child of “its” tip owner, and connected to it. As usual, once extrusion is done, only the new bones’ tips are selected, and in grab mode, so you can place them to your liking. 
当你按e键的时候,对于每个已经选中的尾部,一个新的bone就已经生成了,这个bone将是它的尾部的所有
者的子bone,并且与该bone有链接关系,通常一旦该动作完成,仅仅有bones的尾部是选中状态,所以你可以
把它们放到你想放的位置上去。

You also can use the rotating/scaling extrusions, as with meshes, by pressing respectively E R and E S ? as well as locked extrusion along a global or local axis.
你也可以使用er或es这样的操作,来进行翻转和放大或缩小。

Bones have an extra “mirror extruding” tool, called by pressing Shift-E. By default, it behaves exactly like the standard extrusion. But once you have enabled the X-Axis Mirror editing option (see X-Axis Mirror), each extruded tip will produce two new bones, having the same name except for the “_L”/ “_R” suffix (for left/right, see the next page). The “_L” bone behaves like the single one produced by the default extrusion ? you can grab/rotate/scale it exactly the same way. The “_R” bone is its mirror counterpart (along the armature’s local X axis)

Bones有一个特殊的镜像extruding工具,可以通过shift-e 来进行调取,默认它的行为类似标准的extrusion.但是你一旦启动了
x坐标轴镜像,每个新增的尾部都会生成两个新的bones.具有相同的名字,但是都带着_L或_R后缀,来表示是左右bone.

Canceling the extrude action causes the newly created bones to snap back to the source position, (creating zero length bones). These will be removed when exiting Edit Mode, however, they can cause confusion and it’s unlikely you want to keep them. If you realize the problem immediately undo the extrude action.
取消extrude的行为,会引起新生成的bones重新吸附到原位置上(生成0长度的bones),在退出编辑模式的时候,这些新的bones
都会被移除。然而这可能会让你困惑,因为它们的这种处理模式,有点另类。


In case you are wondering, you cannot just press X to solve this as you would in mesh editing, because extrusion selects the newly created tips, and as explained below the Delete tool ignores bones’ joints. To get rid of these extruded bones without undoing, you would have to move the tips, then select the bones and delete (Delete Selected Bone(s)) them.
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