Introduction 介绍

Bones are the base elements of armatures. The visualization of bones can be set in the Armatures Display Panel.

Bones是动画变形的基础元素,bones的配置面板可以在Display Panel中进行配置

Classification 分类

Bones in an Armature can be generally classified into two different types: 在一个Armature里通常可以分为两种Bones

  1. Deforming Bones 变形Bones
  2. Control Bones     控制Bones

Deforming Bones 变形Bones

Are bones which when transformed will result in vertices associated with them also transforming in a similar way. Deforming Bones are directly involved in altering the positions of vertices associated with their bones.

如果涉及到锚点相关的形状转化,变形Bones可以非常好的提供帮助,因为这种类型的Bones可以修改与之相关的锚点的位置。

Control Bones 控制Bones

Are Bones which act in a similar way to switches, in that, they control how other bones or objects react when they are transformed. A Control Bone could for example act as a sliding switch control when the bone is in one position to the left, it could indicate to other bones that they react in a particular way when transformed, and when the Control Bone is positioned to the right, transforming other bones or objects could do something completely different. Control Bones are not directly used to alter the positions of vertices; in fact, Control Bones often have no vertices directly associated with themselves.

如果需要的行为类似切换开关那样的有规律的行为,那么控制Bones可以提供有效的帮助,比如提供滑入与滑出的控制,那么
使用控制Bones就可以很容易的实现左右的相互滑动操作,这里需要注意控制Bones不能直接修改锚点的位置。

Structure结构



They have three elements: 一个Bone包括三个元素:

头部或根部; 主体;尾部。
With the default armature in Edit Mode, you can select the root and the tip, and move them as you do with mesh vertices.
默认情况下在编辑模式下,你可以选择根部或尾部,像处理锚点一样,移动这些Bones.

Both root and tip (the “joints”) define the bone by their respective position.
头部与尾部(关节)是被它们关联的位置来决定和定义的。

They also have a radius property, only useful for the envelope deformation method 
它们也有一个半径属性,这对于外观结构的变形非常有用处

Roll转动


Activating Axes checkbox on the Armature tab ? Display panel, will show local axes for each bone’s tip. The Y axis is always aligned along the bone, oriented from root to tip. So, this is the “roll” axis of the bones
在Armature标签上的关于活动坐标系的复选框,展示了对于每个Bone的根部所其作用的本地坐标系,这里需要注意Y坐标系总是赋给每个bone,从根部到尾部的方向,所以这是与bones转动相关的坐标系。


Bones Influence Bones的作用原理


Basically, a bone controls a geometry when vertices “follow” the bone. This is like how the muscles and skin of your finger follow your finger-bone when you move a finger.
一个bone与一个几何形状相关,这有点类似你的手指,伴随你的移动手指,手指的肌肉和手指皮肤拉伸的原理。

为了移动,你必须定义bone在一个确定的vertex上产生的影响强度。

The simplest way is to have each bone affecting those parts of the geometry that are within a given range from it. This is called the envelope technique, because each bone can control only the geometry “enveloped” by its own influence area.
最简单的办法是让每个bone影响几何形状内的部分锚点,你可以定义这个受影响的部分或者说区域,这被成为封装技术
因为每个bone可以仅仅控制被封装的几何图形部分,这被称为bone的有效影响区域。

在编辑模式下,并且是Pose模式下,你可以看到bones有效的影响区域:

  • 区域的长度
  • 头部与根部的半径长度



All these influence parameters are further detailed in the skinning pages.
所有与影响范围相关的参数,都可以在skinning页面找到更详细的参考。


Selecting选择

You can select and edit bones of armatures in Edit Mode and in Pose Mode. Here, we will see how to select bones in Edit Mode. Selecting bones in Pose Mode is similar to selecting in Edit Mode with a few specific differences that will be detailed in the posing part.

你可以在编辑模式下选择并编辑bones,在本小节将演示这个过程,在Pose模式下选择bones需要一组不同的参照,在posing
部分。

这类似Vertex/edge在meshes里选择的道理类似:


 通过选择bones的主体部分,进行直接选择

通过选择bones的头部与尾部的关节。

This is an important point to understand, because selecting bones’ joints only might lead to non-obvious behavior, with respect to which bone you actually select, see the.
有个点非常重要,因为选择bones的关节也许会产生不明显的动作,可能你在选择的时候,都意识不到这点


Note that unlike the mesh draw type, the armature draw type has no effect on selection behavior. In other words, you can select a bone’s joint or body the same way regardless of the bone visualization chosen.
同时需要注意这里不同于mesh的draw type对于armature的draw type对选择行为没有任何影响,换句话说,你可以选择
一个bone的关节和主体,不需要考虑bone的外观显示。


Selecting Bone Joints选择Bone关节

To select bones’ joints you have the standard selection methods.
为了选择bones的关节,你需要有标准的选择方法。

Inverse Selection 反选择

As stated above, you have to remember that these selection tools are for bones’ joints only, not the bones’ bodies.
正如前面所强调的,你必须记住这些选择工具,是专门针对关节的选择工具,而不是bone的主体部分

For example, the Inverse selection option Ctrl-I inverts the selection of bones’ joints, not of bones (see Inverse selection).
例如反向选择项 ctrl-l 会反转选择的bones的关节,而不是bones自身。

Remember that a bone is selected only if both its joints are selected. So, when the selection status of bones’ joints is inverted, a new set of bones is selected.
记住如果你选择了一个bone的关节,也就等于你选择了该bone,当关节反转后,一组新的bones也就同时被选中了。

Selecting Connected Bone Joints 选择负责连接的bone关节


Another example is: when you select the root of a bone connected to its parent, you also implicitly select the tip of its parent (and vice versa).另外的例子:当你选择了连接其父节点的一个bone的根部,你也隐含的选择
了其父节点的尾部。(类似信用卡的主卡与副卡的关系)

记住:父bone的尾部,与它的子bones的头部是一个意思。

Selecting Bones 选择Bones

By RMB-clicking on a bone’s body, you will select it (and hence you will implicitly select its root and tip).
通过RMB单击在一个bones主体上,你将选择它,(同时也意味你同时选择了它的头部与尾部)

Using Shift-RMB, you can add to/remove from the selection.
使用shift+RMB你可以添加或移除从选择区域内

You also have some advanced selection options, based on their relations.
你也有基于Bones关系的几个高级选择项

You can select at once all the bones in the chain which the active (last selected) bone belongs to by using the linked selection tool, L.
你可以一次选择真个链条上的所有Bones通过使用连接选择工具 L

镜像选择 Shift-Ctrl-M
 
Flip the selection from one side to another.从一边切换到另一边
Pick Shortest Path 选择最短路径 Ctrl-RMB 
Selects the path from the active bone to the bone under the mouse.
选择从活动bone到当前bone的最短路径。

Deselecting Connected Bones 撤销连接的Bones的选择


There is a subtlety regarding connected bones. 这里有个微秒的连接性bones

When you have several connected bones selected, if you deselect one bone, its tip will be deselected, but not its root, if it is also the tip of another selected bone.当你有一组已经选择的连接性bones,如果你撤销对一个
的选择,但是不是它的根bone,那么它仍然是另外一个仍保持选择状态的bone的尾部。

More/Less

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Select


更多 Ctrl-NumpadPlus
Expand the current selection to the connected bones. 可以把当前的选择区域扩展到当前
连接的bones区域
减少 Ctrl-NumpadMinus
Contrast the selection, deselect bones at the boundaries of each selection region.
撤销选择区域的每个边缘的所有bones
Parent [, Child ] 父子
You can deselect the active bone and select its immediate parent or one of its children.
你可以撤销对活动bone的选择,然后立刻选择父节点或是它的子节点。
Extend Parent Shift-[, Extend Child Shift-]
Similar to Parent/Child but it keeps the active bone in the selection.
这类似父/子,的选择,但是你需要保持活动bone可选。

Similar 相近选择

Mode:Edit Mode
Menu:Select ? Similar
Hotkey:Shift-G


Children
Extends the selection to all hierarchical descendant bones.
Immediate Children
Extends the selection to all direct child bones.
Siblings
Selects bones that have the same parent as the active bone.
Length
Selects bones with a similar bone length (between tip and tail) under the specified Threshold.
Direction (Y axis)
Select bones aligned on the Y axis (along the bones length).
Prefix
Select bones with matching name prefix (separated by .).
Suffix
Select bones with matching name suffix (separated by .).
Layer
Select bones on the same layer.
Group
Select bones in the same group.
Shape
Select bones using the same shape object (in pose mode).